NATO Summit Publication 2016
PUBLISHED: September 11, 2016
In support of the NATO Summit 2016 in Warsaw on 8-9 July, the Atlantic Treaty Association published an official publication titled “Strengthening peace and security”. The 2016 edition addresses the key threats and challenges NATO allies and partners are facing today. Previous edition of the ATA Official Summit Publications are available at the following link 2014, 2012.
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | The Warsaw Summit
PUBLISHED: August 31, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 8 – August 2016 Two years ago, the Wales Summit marked a historic turn for NATO as the Alliance was forced to recognize that its European territory was threatened for the first time in 25 years; menaces emerging from the South and the East made NATO vulnerable despite so many years of peace. The Summit in Newport in June 2014 acted as the first step of what will certainly be a long process of securing the Euro-Atlantic again.  It also reasserted the fundamental values the Alliance is based on: collective defense, crisis management and cooperative security. So, in two years, what has changed? The official communiqué of the Warsaw Summit announced that the Allies have worked together to secure the borders of NATO, while recognizing the hybrid nature of threats posed to them. Russia is then directly  pointed out as challenging the security of the Alliance. This issue analyzes the focal points of the Summit: the first article focuses on the security situation in the Eastern Flank ; the second article dwells on the Alliance’s new integration of the cyber sphere as its 5th operative domain; and the last article details Macedonia’s membership prospects throughout the years. CONTENTS From the Warsaw Pact to the Warsaw Summit Mr. Mateusz Krupczyński explores the evolution of the security environment of the Eastern Flank from the creation of NATO to today. Russia’s Use of Cyber Warfare in the Conflicts in Georgia and Ukraine Mr. Luka Mgeladze focuses on cyber security which has been largely discussed during the Summit in an effort to integrate this operative domain into the Alliance’s field of action. Security After the Warsaw Summit – Prospects and Expectations for Macedonia Ms. Marija Jankuloska & Mr. Ilija Djugumanov analyze Macedonia’s membership prospect and involvement in the Alliance. Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. For details of how to submit your work please and for further enquiries please contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | NATO & the South Caucasus
PUBLISHED: July 23, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 7 – July 2016 Located at the crossroad between Europe , Russia and the Middle East, and in between the Caspian and the Black Sea, the Caucasus is in a very advantageous location, which has encouraged regional powers from both the East and the West to influence it.  Traditionally in Russia’s sphere of influence, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan are today split between two worlds. To the West, NATO offers stability and development, while Moscow appeals to their historical connection. Political instability and regional tensions make this region unstable  as well as very heterogeneous. Each of the countries seem to have built their own models of development and political systems. Borders are also contested in the regions, as illustrated by the two frozen conflicts of Nagorno Karabakh between Azerbaijan and Armenia, and the secessionist regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. This issue explores the complexity of the region: the first article focuses on the frozen conflicts; the second on Georgia’s halted access to the Alliance despite strong commitment; the third one focuses on the implications of the region for Europe’s energy security. CONTENTS The South Caucasus’s Still Frozen Conflits Mr. Xavier Follebouckt explores the frozen conflicts of the region and how they are utilized by Moscow to prevent the countries from joining NATO. Welcoming a Caucasian Guest to the Alliance? Mr. Roger Hilton focuses on Georgia, which has widely contributed to NATO’s operations and abided to its policies but whose accession to membership to the Alliance remains uncertain due to political constraints. Energy Security in the South Caucasus Ms. Kamilla Solieva analyzes the importance of the South Caucasus for Europe’s energy security in times of increasing tensions with their traditional energy provider, Russia Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. For details of how to submit your work please and for further enquiries please contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
NATO in 3D: Deterrence, Defense and Dialogue
PUBLISHED: July 7, 2016
First published in "NATO Summit 2016 – Strengthening Peace and Security"  An official publication of the Atlantic Treaty Association; supported by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division   Sixty years since the adoption of “The Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military Cooperation in NATO”, authored by the Ministers Gaetano Martino, Halvard Lange and Laster B. Pearson, the Heads of State and Government of the Alliance gather in Warsaw for a Summit that will represent a cornerstone in the NATO adaptation to the new complex security scenario. A 360-degree response is needed to cope with the interconnected threats emerging simultaneously from the Eastern and Southern flanks of the Alliance. Moreover, a similarly wide approach is necessary to combine both the political and military dimension of the Alliance and to effectively meet the extensive range of the new security tasks. The Warsaw Summit will offer a vision of the future of NATO in 3D: Deterrence, Defense, and Dialogue. Deterrence needs to be reconsidered in a modern way, on both its conventional and nuclear dimensions. Defense of our free democracies, populations and territories is worrisome as it is constantly tested by state and non‑state actors and by violent terrorist actions as well. Thus, a strengthening of collective defense is necessary while a comprehensive approach is required to address the multifaceted security challenges of the present crisis management operations. Moreover, new hybrid warfare tactics and asymmetric threats are emerging with unprecedented rapidity and must be confronted by high readiness forces, a faster decision making process, and a genuine spirit of cooperative security with other partners and international institutions, first and foremost the European Union. In fact, “No state, however powerful, can guarantee its security and its welfare by national action alone”. It appeared evident sixty years ago to the Three Wise Men, and it is particularly true in the present days affected by security challenges without borders, such as the cyber threat, migration, and climate change. Yet, defense must be credible and needs to rely on modern capabilities sustained by stable defense budgets that cannot decrease anymore under the 2% of national GDP. Dialogue remains essential to improve cooperative security with partners as well as to complement deterrence and defense. In 1967, Minister Pierre Harmel released a farsighted “Report on the Future Tasks of the Alliance” that effectively introduced the notion of deterrence and dialogue, setting the scene for NATO’s first steps toward a more cooperative approach to security. A strategic move that should represent an inspiring model for restoring a partnership with the Russian Federation. Besides an external feature of dialogue and its cooperative security approach, there is an even more relevant internal dimension of political consultation and cooperation among NATO members that can be further enhanced. As stated by the Three Wise Men, “From the very beginning of NATO, then, it was recognised that while defence cooperation was the first and most urgent requirement, this was not enough. It has also become increasingly realised since the Treaty was signed that security is today far more than a military matter. The strengthening of political consultation and economic cooperation, the development of resources, progress in education and public understanding, all these can be as important, or even more important, for the protection of the security of a nation, or an alliance, as the building of a battleship or the equipping of an army.” Since 1954, these are the very domains and tasks unremittingly addressed by the Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) across NATO members and partner countries. At present, ATA has increased its outreach and is cooperating with countries in the Mediterranean and the Middle East on joint programs aimed at adopting common solutions to common security challenges. In 1956, the Report of the Committee of Three acknowledged the importance of ATA’s role in forging an Atlantic community by promoting a better understanding of the Alliance and its enduring goals. Since then, with more than 500 programs per year across 37 different countries, ATA and its youth division YATA, is connecting NATO with the civil society and keeping new generations, experts, media, parliamentarians, and decision makers informed and committed to maintaining an effective Alliance. In fact, while military operations and exercises are the most visible aspects of NATO, the real strength and lifeblood of the NATO forces originates from the allied solidarity stemming from the political consultations and from a less visible but vital link with the civil society. ATA remains steadfast in its commitment as in Warsaw, even more than sixty years ago, “A sense of community must bind the people as well as the institutions of the Atlantic nations”.    
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | One Year after the Iran Nuclear Deal
PUBLISHED: June 23, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 6 – June 2016 In July 2015, a much expected nuclear deal was finally reached between Iran and the P5+1 (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and Germany), announcing the lifting of international sanctions against Tehran in exchange for the country’s agreement to limit its nuclear activity to energy purposes. This issue focuses on the impact the deal has had on world security. The lifting of sanctions against Iran has acted as a game changer for the country which is now able to openly trade with world powers as well as have a voice on the international scene. Iran is now able to export its large oil resources across the globe, notably to China and Europe, which has had negative impacts for the price of crude oil and thus for other oil exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and Russia. On top of traditionally tense relations with Riyadh, Tehran’s disregard for OPEC’s guidelines and increased influence in Syria can be expected to further contribute to the region’s instability. Despite the deal, the nuclear threat has not disappeared and remains a concern for NATO which is in a dire need to redefine its nuclear strategy in face of Russia’s assertive attitude and other actors’ threatening attitude. CONTENTS One Year On: Iran and the World Mr. Neil Thompson examines the state of Iran's relations with the major world and regional powers in the year since its nuclear deal was signed with the international community, and how the lifting of sanctions has affected regional security after Iran’s return to the international scene. Incompatible Needs: Denuclearization vs. Nuclear Deterrence Ms. Flora Pidoux analyses how short term security priorities are forcing NATO to revise its nuclear strategy despite the West’s support for  denuclearization, arms reduction and non-proliferation. Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. For details of how to submit your work please and for further enquiries please contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | Cooperative Security & Smart Defense
PUBLISHED: June 1, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 5 - May 2016 How can NATO address new and potent security challenges with limited financial means? This is the puzzle the European Allies have been trying to solve since the resurgence of direct security threats. The answer is simple: cooperation. Cooperative security is a key component of NATO which has been replaced by crisis management since the end of the Cold War. Today, cooperation must be brought back to the surface, a task which is difficult to achieve. NATO members collectively have the capacity to protect the continent; however, they are reluctant to share their military capabilities with their neighbors via a supranational body, such as the UN or the EU, which  could coordinate the international effort to fight off terrorism and other current dangers. The first article will analyze the efforts of each organization in regards to cooperative security. Some cooperative programs have been put in place, notably through NATO’s Smart Defence program. The German-Netherlands cooperation, which will be discussed in the second article, is proof that international cooperation can work. There is still a long way to go before all 28 Allies follow this example. CONTENTS The Future of the EU’s Pooling & Sharing and NATO’s Smart Defence Ms. Christine Andreeva compares the European Union’s and NATO’s cooperative defense strategies. Each system presents advantages and both share many similarities, however, it seems counterproductive for both to exist. Germany and the Netherlands: Leading the Way in Defence Cooperation Ms. Marianne Copier details the cooperative efforts implemented by the Netherlands and Germany, namely the 1 (Germany/Netherlands) Corps,  in order to merge their forces and thus cut down the costs of securing Europe. Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. For details of how to submit your work please and for further enquiries please contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | NATO Military Exercises & Deterrence
PUBLISHED: May 1, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 04 – April 2016 Deciding to attack an opponent is often the result of a rational choice calculation whereby the gains of attacking would outweigh the associated costs. In order to prevent an attack, building a strong deterrent force is crucial to make the cost of attacking or the cost or retaliation clearly outweigh the potential gains of attacking.  It is based on this idea, and mainly thanks to their nuclear weapons, that the West has been through relatively peaceful times since the end of the Second World War and despite the confrontation with Russia. In recent years, and even though threatening NATO still risks triggering a nuclear response, Moscow maneuvers on the Alliance’s Eastern front have made the Allies recenter their scope of action back onto themselves. The way Russia is behaving does not seem rational, and it is for that reason that the Alliance must respond with care. At the same time, NATO must respond to the security dilemma Russia created: deterrence must be reinforced. The first article of this publication focuses on NATO’s deterrence strategy on the Eastern flank of the Alliance, while the second analyses Exercise Trident Juncture, NATO’s largest exercise  since 1998. CONTENTS Deterrence on the Eastern Flank Mr. Patrick Curran analyzes how deterrence has been a core element of NATO’s strategy during the Cold War but had been put to the side until a few years ago with the worrisome developments to the Alliance’s Eastern Flank.  It appears that despite many efforts, NATO’s deterrence is not yet powerful enough to face a potential attack. Trident Juncture and the Return of Large Scale  Exercises Mr. Francisco Costa focuses on Exercise Trident Juncture 2015 which marked the return large scale exercises. Outlined in the Wales Declaration, this exercise appears to be the first step of many new initiatives currently being put in place by the Allies and aiming to reinforce the security of the Euro-Atlantic.
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | On the Way to Warsaw
PUBLISHED: March 31, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 6, Issue 03 – March 2016 Two years after the NATO Wales Summit which reshaped the Alliance and realigned the Allies around the traditional mandate of the organization, the 28 member states will gather this coming July in Warsaw, Poland. Within those two years, many things have changed. NATO has recentered  itself around collective defence and cooperative security and put out-of-area missions aside in order to focus on its own security. Threatened to the East and to the South, the Alliance has been required to adapt to a fast-changing security environment which involves non-military threats. This has demanded for NATO’s original concepts to be adapted to today’s context, in order to include hybrid risks into the programs and missions to effectively tackle the dangers. Broadly presented in the Wales Declaration, NATO’s priorities have been defined along the way ever since, be it through the development of new concepts or by the integration of new security concerns. The first article of this issue will dwell on the evolution of NATO’s discourse from the Wales Declaration to the Secretary General’s Annual Reports, while the second will focus on the implementation of the 2-20 defense pledge. CONTENTS Charting the Way to Warsaw Ms. Madeline Lichtfuss compares the programs outlined in the Wales   Declaration with the NATO Secretary General’s Annual Reports of 2014 and 2015 in an effort to determine the evolution of the Alliance’s priorities since September 2014 and what will be discussed in Warsaw next July. The 2-20 Pledge Ahead of the Warsaw Summit Mr. Mateusz Krupczynski analyzes the implementation of the defence spending increase the Allies pledged to implement at the NATO Wales Summit in 2014. He focuses on who has honored their pledge and why some have not, and discusses the implications of the pledge for Euro-Atlantic security.
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | Climate Security
PUBLISHED: February 29, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 5, Issue 12 – December 2015 It is  difficult today to refute that climate change is in progress. When the effects used to be restricted to the  already resource scarce and isolated regions of the world, the entire planet is now being affected by global warming one way or another as more extreme whether conditions have erupted, threatening infrastructures, human lives and state security. Climate degradation poses a threat for the reason that it is hard to control and cannot be reversed. It can, however, be slowed down by reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement reached at the end of COP21 which took place in Paris at the end of 2015, aimed at just that: set limits so that we do not further jeopardize our planet. Although not perceived as a direct security threat, global warming triggers phenomena which do. Migrations and conflicts are now more prone to arise due to resource scarcity. This issue explores how NATO has been indirectly affected by climate change, notably through natural disasters within its borders and migration,  and what measures the Alliance has put in place as a reaction. The geopolitical implications of the melting of the ice cap will also be addressed. CONTENTS Climate Change and NATO: Integration and Adaptation Ms. Candice Geinoz analyzes how climate change is perceived by NATO, how the phenomenon has indirectly impacted the security of the Alliance, and which measures have been put in place by the organization to protect itself from the effects of climate degradation. What Happens to the Arctic Does Not Stay in the Arctic…And Vice Versa Mr. Andrea Bogi focuses on how the economic prospects liberated by the  melting of the ice cap and cooperation in the High North have been affected by the deterioration of NATO-Russia relations.    
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | Montenegro in NATO
PUBLISHED: February 3, 2016
Atlantic Voices, Volume 5, Issue 12 – December 2015 By formally inviting Montenegro to begin the accession talks, NATO has opened itself to a seventh round of enlargement. The last two countries to join the Alliance were Albania and Croatia in April 2009. Montenegro’s invitation stands in line with NATO’s Open Door Policy , defined in Article 10 of the Washington Treaty.  The door is open for European states who respect the rules of democracy and rule of law, share the Euro-Atlantic values and  are able and willing to assume the responsibilities that come with NATO membership. By becoming a member, Montenegro will therefore be protected by Article 5 but will also have  to  contribute to the Allies’ security efforts. Montenegro’s location makes it a great asset for the Alliance  which has been expanding its role in the Balkans since the collapse of Yugoslavia. The invitation has, however, not been positively perceived by Russia who has reiterated its willingness to maintain its leadership on its former sphere of influence. More than anything, Montenegro’s invitation to join NATO must be seen as a sign to the Western Balkans that the Alliance sees them as potential allies. CONTENTS All Roads Lead West Ms. Milena Savovic analyzes the efforts demonstrated by the government of Montenegro since their independence in 2006 to implement deep reforms of the country’s political, economic and defense system in the hope of joining the Euro-Atlantic organizations. The Game of Influence: NATO-Russia Relations Today Mr. Robert Ivitsa Shushich focuses on how Montenegro's eagerness to join NATO has been putting a strain on NATO-Russia relations as Moscow is strongly opposing NATO enlargement in the Balkans.
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | Unconventional Security Threats
PUBLISHED: December 16, 2015
Atlantic Voices, Volume 5, Issue 12 – December 2015 The concept of ‘unconventional security threats’ has become more and more relevant when trying to describe the menaces our current world order is confronted to. Broadly defined as “threats to national well-being which has no direct military component, no adequate military response, and few functional organizations designed to deal with these threats.” Today, traditional  threats and warfare have ceded way to hybrid methods which require new capacities.  In the upcoming years, we can expect unconventional threats to be the cause of more and more international friction, as already visible in some parts of the world. Because of the wide array of threats which can be labelled as unconventional, anything could potentially fall under this category. We can cite financial security, terrorism, climate change and migration as examples. In this issue, migration, and more specifically the migration waves coming from Syria and other Middle Eastern countries, and water security will be discussed. CONTENTS Real Threat of Mass Migration to NATO’s European Members Mr. Lorenzo Nannetti analyzes how mass migration provides terrorist organizations with new financial, operational and logistical support, thus increasing the instability of the region migrants transit through. Water Insecurity: Creating Instability, Conflicts and Terrorism Ms. Casey Simmons & Ms. Flora Pidoux focus on the implications of water insecurity and how mismanagement and careless exploitation has led to dramatic situations in several parts of the world.   Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, a subject expert or a professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. If you want to submit your work please check the TOPICS CHART before and  contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association
Atlantic Voices | Nuclear Security
PUBLISHED: December 1, 2015
Atlantic Voices, Volume 5, Issue 11 - November 2015 The introduction of nuclear weapons into a state’s arsenal decisively changed the context of international relations and means of warfare. From the beginning, this new weaponry needed to be controlled and regulated, as illustrated by the number of treaties limiting the number of nuclear warheads, enriched uranium and conduct of weapon testing. Despite the various regulations, proliferation of nuclear weapons has been a major concern for most of the second half of the 20th century. This has been a particular concern on the part of the international community regarding rogue states such as North Korea, Libya, Syria and Iraq. Perhaps more concerning is the risk posed by non-state actors who could potentially acquire nuclear and fissile materials through black market trade and/or illicit smuggling. Moreover, the threat of a terrorism organization attaining nuclear weapons  is much harder to address. This issue will analyze the implications posed to nuclear security as a result of the recent deal between Iran and the P5+1 as well as analyze the threat the Euro-Atlantic currently faces from non-state nuclear terrorism as a result of the instability throughout the Mediterranean region. CONTENTS Implications of the Iran Nuclear Deal for NATO's Eastern Front Ms. Danielle Najjar analyzes how the Iran Nuclear Deal signed in July 2015 affects NATO’s Ballistic Missile Defense vis-à-vis Iran but also Russia and NATO’s Central and Eastern European Allies and Partners. The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism Amidst Crisis in the MENA Region Mr. Dean Patrick Rice, Dr. Howard Lewis Hall & Ms. Natalie Manaeva Rice discuss how the current instability in the MENA region increases the need to revise our preventative and response capabilities to cope with the possibility of a nuclear or radiological attack.     [embed][/embed]   Atlantic Voices is always seeking new contributors. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. If you want to submit your work please check the TOPICS CHART before and  contact us.  
By: Atlantic Treaty Association

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The Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) is an organization of 38 national chapters that, since 1954 has been conducting analyses, training, education, and information activities on foreign affairs and security issues relevant to the Atlantic Alliance. ATA draws together political leaders, diplomats, civilian and military officers, academics, economic actors as well as young professionals and students in an effort to further the values set forth in the North Atlantic Treaty.